Klein, Melanie

An Austrian-born, second-generation psychoanalyst, trained under Sandor Ferenczi in Budapest and Karl Abraham in Berlin. She moved to London in 1926 and became a major figure in British and world psychoanalysis , the founder, within the British Psychoanalytic Society, of the Kleinian school.
Her innovations in technique were to analyse young children, substituting play for verbal free-association; to explore the importance of counter-transference-the analyst's feelings about the client; and to undertake the analysis of psychotics. She developed a more elaborate theory of the emotional life of the young baby than did Sigmund Freud. Her argument was that all infants progress through two positions: a paranoid-schizoid position, where bad feelings are projected into the external world, which is then felt to be threatening; and a depressive position, when these feelings are reintegrated into the personality. Thus everybody has the experience of, and at least the distant possibility of regressing to, madness. She gave a clinical meaning to Freud's concept of the death instinct, dealing with it as destructive envy (hatred), and emphasized the role of unconscious fantasy.
Over recent years her work has been drawn on for purposes of social criticism. For example, her analysis of the early stages of development can be used to understand characteristics of the modern personality (see, The Minimal Self, 1984), and her concern with the play of love and hate has been used to supplement critical theory (see, Melanie Klein and Critical Social Theory, 1989). Her most important papers can be found in, The Selected Melanie Klein (1986). See also Object Relations Test.

Dictionary of sociology. 2013.

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  • Klein,Melanie — Klein (klīn), Melanie. 1882 1960. Austrian born British psychoanalyst who specialized in child development. Her works include The Psychoanalysis of Children (1932) and Envy and Gratitude (1957). * * * …   Universalium

  • Klein, Melanie — orig. Melanie Reizes born March 30, 1882, Vienna, Austria died Sept. 22, 1960, London, Eng. Austrian British psychoanalyst. She married at age 21 and had three children before undergoing psychoanalysis with Ferenczi Sándor in Budapest, Hung. She… …   Universalium

  • Klein, Melanie — orig. Melanie Reizes (30 mar. 1882, Viena, Austria–22 sep. 1960, Londres, Inglaterra). Psicoanalista británica de origen austríaco. Se casó a los 21 años y tuvo tres hijos antes de someterse a psicoanálisis con Sándor Ferenczi en Budapest,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Klein, Melanie — (1882 1960)    Austrian psychoan alyst. Born in Vienna, she studied at the University of Vienna. After moving to Budapest she was drawn to the works of Sigmund Freud and was analysed by Sandor Ferenczi. She went to Berlin and later settled in… …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES — (1882–1960), British psychoanalyst. Born Melanie Reizes in Vienna, she settled in Budapest after her marriage to businessman Arthur Klein. There she became interested in psychoanalysis and was analyzed by Sándor Ferenzi. In 1919 she read her… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Klein, Melanie Reizes —    (1880–1960)    Leading theorist of the unconscious in early stages of infancy, Melanie Klein was born in Vienna, the daughter of a physician. She studied art and history at Vienna University, without graduating, then at the age of 21 married… …   Historical dictionary of Psychiatry

  • Klein — Klein, Melanie …   Dictionary of sociology

  • Melanie Klein — (Viena; 30 de marzo de 1882 Londres; 22 de septiembre de 1960) fue una psicoanalista austriaca, creadora de una teoría del funcionamiento psíquico. Hizo importantes contribuciones sobre el desarrollo infantil desde la teoría psicoanalítica y… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Mélanie Klein — Melanie Klein Pour les articles homonymes, voir Klein. Melanie Klein http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/teaching/UVLibre/0001/bin47/m klein.jpg …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Klein — Klein, Lawrence * * * (as used in expressions) Klein, Calvin (Richard) Klein, Melanie Klein, Yves …   Enciclopedia Universal

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